334 ETYMOLOGY OF LOCAL KAMES. as Senwa into its constituent elements might seem a hopeless undertaking ; but the clouds are dispelled OE ascertaining that a neighbouring pond of reputed sanctity Is known as Sjamkund. Thence It may reasonably be inferred that the original form was Syiin-gaaw ; the final m of Syaxn and the initial g of (jtiitw being elided by the rales already quoted, and the consonant y passing into Its cognate vowel. Other names in the district, in which the affix game may he suspected to lurk in a similarly mutilated condition, are Jaiswa for Jay-Sinn-gauw ; Bnsuun for Bishan-ganw ; Bhiiin for Bhim-ganw ; Badon for Bsadu-pranw* (BMu being for Sanskrit Bddava) and Ohawa for Udha-ganw. Another word of yet wider signification than either puri or grama^ and one which Is known to have been extensively used as a local affix in early times, is 8thdnas or its Hindi equivalent tJidna. And yet, strange to say, there is not a single village name in the whole district in which its presence is apparent. It probably exists, but if soy only in the very mutilated form of ha. Thus the village of Satolui on the road -between Mathura and Gobardhan is famous for, and beyond any doubt whatever derives its name from, a sacred pond called Santanu-kund. The eponymous hero is a mythological character of such remote antiquity that he is barely reniemhered at all at the present day, and what is told about him on the spot is a strange jumble of the original legend. The word Satolui therefore is no new creation, and it can scarcely be expected to have escaped from the wear and tear of ages to which it has been exposed, without undergoing even very material changes. The local wiseacres find an etymology in. sattu, £ bran,* which they assert to have been Santanu's only food daring the time that he was practising penance. But this is obviously absurd, and SatoM, I am convinced, is an abbreviation for Santanu-stMna. Instances are very frequent ia which words of any length and specially proper names sire abbreviated by striking oat all but the first syllable and simply adding the vowel u to the part retained. Thus in common village speech at the present day Kalvan is almost invariably addressed as Kalu, Bhagavan as Bhagu, Balawt as Balu, and Mulchand as MuM. In the lasi example the .long vowel of the first syllable is also shortened, and thus an-exact parallel is afforded to the change from Santsnu to Sato or Sato. Sato-thdna then by ordinary rule, if only the th in the compound is regarded as non-initial, becomes Satohana ; and the farther loss of the final tta cannot be regarded as au insuperable difficulty* • Here, as Dr. H«m!ehas pointed out, M«ioa might be simply a comiption of Badara m la^i.forJMara. Bmtltbmk It more probable that, at the time, when the Tillage w« fcwntol, tte worf BUm was no longer carreat In vernacular speech and had been by the Hindi Mdn, which by itself would not admit of expansion into BMon.